Sicily strongly claims and deeply feels its denomination of " land of vine and olive". This denomination refers to the oldest age and to the birth of the mediterranean civilization. According to the legend vine sprang up on the island from the tear-drops of the thirsty divinity Dionysus. This ancient divinity then gave this nectar to mankind as a consolation for the troubles of life and to other divinities to cheer their senses up. Passiti, moscati, malvasie, but also Nero d'Avola, Cerasuolo di Vittoria, Nerello mascalese, Inzolia and other international vines. The sicilian wine production is gaining an important role like other Italian regions, Piemonte and Tuscany which are traditionally famous for their viticulture. Experiments with foreign vines ( Chardonnay, Cabernet, Syrah, Merlot..... ), revealed a particular disposition of the ground to produce this kind of grapes reinforced by propitious climate conditions. But the number of DOC wines is still limited and the improving of autochthonous vines, like Nero d'Avola, needs to be encouraged with further interventions.